Exotic Animals


Exotic animal patients are small and delicate and therefore require refined micro-surgical technique.

About Exotic Animal Surgery

Advanced planning, exactness, speed, and a steady hand are necessary prerequisites for avian and exotic animal surgery. Heavy demands are placed on the exotic animal surgeon when handling fragile tissues, working in small tight spaces, using miniaturized instruments, and operating with the use of magnification such as an ocular loupe.

Even minor hemorrhage can be life-threatening and must be adequately controlled due to the small blood volume of many of our patients. Minimal anesthesia time is extremely imperative as longer surgeries carry greater risk due to hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and respiratory depression.

A&E has diligently incorporated these important factors into the design of our surgical suite and operating protocols. Patients are first thoroughly evaluated pre-surgically to insure that they are good surgical candidates.


Once a patient has been approved for surgery, anesthesia is begun, typically consisting of isoflurane gas in combination with other anesthetic agents. Close monitoring of heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature is performed by an experienced technician.

Body heat conservation is achieved by a recirculating hot water blanket. Anesthesia is a major component of any surgical procedure and more on this subject can be read in our anesthesia section.

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